vmbackup creates VictoriaMetrics data backups from instant snapshots.
Supported storage systems for backups:
- GCS. Example:
- S3. Example:
- Any S3-compatible storage such as MinIO, Ceph or Swift. See
- Local filesystem. Example:
Incremental backups and full backups are supported. Incremental backups are created automatically if the destination path already contains data from the previous backup.
Full backups can be sped up with
-origin pointing to already existing backup on the same remote storage. In this case
vmbackup makes server-side copy for the shared
data between the existing backup and new backup. This saves time and costs on data transfer.
Backup process can be interrupted at any time. It is automatically resumed from the interruption point when restarting
vmbackup with the same args.
Backed up data can be restored with vmrestore.
See this article for more details.
See also vmbackuper tool built on top of
vmbackup. This tool simplifies
creation of hourly, daily, weekly and monthly backups.
Regular backup can be performed with the following command:
vmbackup -storageDataPath=</path/to/victoria-metrics-data> -snapshotName=<local-snapshot> -dst=gcs://<bucket>/<path/to/new/backup>
</path/to/victoria-metrics-data>- path to VictoriaMetrics data pointed by
-storageDataPathcommand-line flag in single-node VictoriaMetrics or in cluster
vmstorage. There is no need to stop VictoriaMetrics for creating backups, since they are performed from immutable instant snapshots.
<local-snapshot>is the snapshot to backup. See how to create instant snapshots.
<bucket>is already existing name for GCS bucket.
<path/to/new/backup>is the destination path where new backup will be placed.
Regular backups with server-side copy from existing backup
If the destination GCS bucket already contains the previous backup at
-origin path, then new backup can be sped up
with the following command:
vmbackup -storageDataPath=</path/to/victoria-metrics-data> -snapshotName=<local-snapshot> -dst=gcs://<bucket>/<path/to/new/backup> -origin=gcs://<bucket>/<path/to/existing/backup>
This saves time and network bandwidth costs by performing server-side copy for the shared data from the
Incremental backups are performed if
-dst points to already existing backup. In this case only new data is uploaded to remote storage.
This saves time and network bandwidth costs when working with big backups:
vmbackup -storageDataPath=</path/to/victoria-metrics-data> -snapshotName=<local-snapshot> -dst=gcs://<bucket>/<path/to/existing/backup>
Smart backups mean storing full daily backups into
YYYYMMDD folders and creating incremental hourly backup into
- Run the following command every hour:
vmbackup -snapshotName=<latest-snapshot> -dst=gcs://<bucket>/latest
<latest-snapshot> is the latest snapshot.
The command will upload only changed data to
- Run the following command once a day:
vmbackup -snapshotName=<daily-snapshot> -dst=gcs://<bucket>/<YYYYMMDD> -origin=gcs://<bucket>/latest
<daily-snapshot> is the snapshot for the last day
This apporach saves network bandwidth costs on hourly backups (since they are incremental) and allows recovering data from either the last hour (
or from any day (
YYYYMMDD backups). Note that hourly backup shouldn’t run when creating daily backup.
Do not forget removing old snapshots and backups when they are no longer needed for saving storage costs.
See also vmbackuper tool for automating smart backups.
How does it work?
The backup algorithm is the following:
- Collect information about files in the
-snapshotName, in the
-dstand in the
- Determine files in
-dst, which are missing in
-snapshotName, and delete them. These are usually small files, which are already merged into bigger files in the snapshot.
- Determine files from
-snapshotName, which are missing in
-dst. These are usually small new files and bigger merged files.
- Determine files from step 3, which exist in the
-origin, and perform server-side copy of these files from
-dst. This are usually the biggest and the oldest files, which are shared between backups.
- Upload the remaining files from setp 3 from
The algorithm splits source files into 100MB chunks in the backup. Each chunk is stored as a separate file in the backup. Such splitting minimizes the amounts of data to re-transfer after temporary errors.
vmbackup relies on instant snapshot properties:
- All the files in the snapshot are immutable.
- Old files are periodically merged into new files.
- Smaller files have higher probability to be merged.
- Consecutive snapshots share many identical files.
These properties allow performing fast and cheap incremental backups and server-side copying from
See this article for more details.
vmbackup can work improperly or slowly when these properties are violated.
- If the backup is slow, then try setting higher value for
-concurrencyflag. This will increase the number of concurrent workers that upload data to backup storage.
vmbackupeats all the network bandwidth, then set
-maxBytesPerSecondto the desired value.
vmbackuphas been interrupted due to temporary error, then just restart it with the same args. It will resume the backup process.
- Backups created from single-node VictoriaMetrics cannot be restored at cluster VictoriaMetrics and vice versa.
vmbackup -help in order to see all the available options:
-concurrency int The number of concurrent workers. Higher concurrency may reduce backup duration (default 10) -configFilePath string Path to file with S3 configs. Configs are loaded from default location if not set. See https://docs.aws.amazon.com/general/latest/gr/aws-security-credentials.html -configProfile string Profile name for S3 configs. If no set, the value of the environment variable will be loaded (AWS_PROFILE or AWS_DEFAULT_PROFILE), or if both not set, DefaultSharedConfigProfile is used -credsFilePath string Path to file with GCS or S3 credentials. Credentials are loaded from default locations if not set. See https://cloud.google.com/iam/docs/creating-managing-service-account-keys and https://docs.aws.amazon.com/general/latest/gr/aws-security-credentials.html -customS3Endpoint string Custom S3 endpoint for use with S3-compatible storages (e.g. MinIO). S3 is used if not set -dst string Where to put the backup on the remote storage. Example: gcs://bucket/path/to/backup/dir, s3://bucket/path/to/backup/dir or fs:///path/to/local/backup/dir -dst can point to the previous backup. In this case incremental backup is performed, i.e. only changed data is uploaded -envflag.enable Whether to enable reading flags from environment variables additionally to command line. Command line flag values have priority over values from environment vars. Flags are read only from command line if this flag isn't set -envflag.prefix string Prefix for environment variables if -envflag.enable is set -fs.disableMmap Whether to use pread() instead of mmap() for reading data files. By default mmap() is used for 64-bit arches and pread() is used for 32-bit arches, since they cannot read data files bigger than 2^32 bytes in memory. mmap() is usually faster for reading small data chunks than pread() -loggerErrorsPerSecondLimit int Per-second limit on the number of ERROR messages. If more than the given number of errors are emitted per second, then the remaining errors are suppressed. Zero value disables the rate limit (default 10) -loggerFormat string Format for logs. Possible values: default, json (default "default") -loggerLevel string Minimum level of errors to log. Possible values: INFO, WARN, ERROR, FATAL, PANIC (default "INFO") -loggerOutput string Output for the logs. Supported values: stderr, stdout (default "stderr") -maxBytesPerSecond value The maximum upload speed. There is no limit if it is set to 0 Supports the following optional suffixes for values: KB, MB, GB, KiB, MiB, GiB (default 0) -memory.allowedBytes value Allowed size of system memory VictoriaMetrics caches may occupy. This option overrides -memory.allowedPercent if set to non-zero value. Too low value may increase cache miss rate, which usually results in higher CPU and disk IO usage. Too high value may evict too much data from OS page cache, which will result in higher disk IO usage Supports the following optional suffixes for values: KB, MB, GB, KiB, MiB, GiB (default 0) -memory.allowedPercent float Allowed percent of system memory VictoriaMetrics caches may occupy. See also -memory.allowedBytes. Too low value may increase cache miss rate, which usually results in higher CPU and disk IO usage. Too high value may evict too much data from OS page cache, which will result in higher disk IO usage (default 60) -origin string Optional origin directory on the remote storage with old backup for server-side copying when performing full backup. This speeds up full backups -snapshot.createURL string VictoriaMetrics create snapshot url. When this is given a snapshot will automatically be created during backup. Example: http://victoriametrics:8428/snaphsot/create -snapshot.deleteURL string VictoriaMetrics delete snapshot url. Optional. Will be generated from -snapshot.createURL if not provided. All created snaphosts will be automatically deleted. Example: http://victoriametrics:8428/snaphsot/delete -snapshotName string Name for the snapshot to backup. See https://github.com/VictoriaMetrics/VictoriaMetrics/blob/master/README.md#how-to-work-with-snapshots -storageDataPath string Path to VictoriaMetrics data. Must match -storageDataPath from VictoriaMetrics or vmstorage (default "victoria-metrics-data") -version Show VictoriaMetrics version
How to build from sources
It is recommended using binary releases - see
vmutils-* archives there.
- Install Go. The minimum supported version is Go 1.13.
make vmbackupfrom the root folder of the repository. It builds
vmbackupbinary and puts it into the
- Install docker.
make vmbackup-prodfrom the root folder of the repository. It builds
vmbackup-prodbinary and puts it into the
Building docker images
make package-vmbackup. It builds
victoriametrics/vmbackup:<PKG_TAG> docker image locally.
<PKG_TAG> is auto-generated image tag, which depends on source code in the repository.
<PKG_TAG> may be manually set via
PKG_TAG=foobar make package-vmbackup.
By default the image is built on top of alpine image. It is possible to build the package on top of any other base image
by setting it via
<ROOT_IMAGE> environment variable. For example, the following command builds the image on top of scratch image:
ROOT_IMAGE=scratch make package-vmbackup